Obesity, being an epidemy these days, is the trigger of metabolic disturbances such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance. Defined as an increase in fat storage, adipose tissue has been put under the spotlight as the culprit of these conditions, as it is composed not only by adipocytes but of any immune system cell and a singular extracellular matrix. Its behavior under acute and chronic hypercaloric states is quite different; persistent hypertrophy in the latter creates hypoxia, resulting in the release of reactive oxygen species and proinflammatory cytokines that impact on the immune response type of the resident leucocytes, mainly macrophages. Hypertrophy over hyperplasia, adipose tissue macrophages-M1 phenotype polarization, and the adipokines/myokines profile are thought to be regulated by foreign microRNAs, delivered from surrounding or distant cells by exosomes through the bloodstream. In this chapter, we focus on adipose tissue immunometabolism and how obesity causes the chronic inflammatory state, and, subsequently, this stablishes a pathologic adiposity, characterized by dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR).
Part of the book: Obesity