Phelan-McDermid (PMS) or 22q13 deletion syndrome (OMIM 606232) is a rare genetic disorder with highly variable clinical presentation. The phenotype includes generalized neonatal hypotonia, developmental delay with intellectual disability and delayed speech, mild dysmorphic features, and autistic behavior. The genetic defects of PMS consist of 22q13.3 deletions or chromosomal structural rearrangements involving SHANK3 gene; the loss of function mutations of SHANK3 gene was reported in a minority of cases. The 22q13.3 deletions vary in size, from 0.2 to over 9 Mb, and, although larger deletions are generally associated with more severe phenotypes, the genotype-phenotype correlations are not clear-cut for all patients. SHANK3 is considered the main candidate gene for the neurologic features of PMS. PMS is a rare disorder, often underdiagnosed. There are no established clinical diagnostic criteria for PMS. The genetic tests typically used are chromosomal microarray and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for copy number analysis of SHANK3 gene; next-generation sequencing (NGS) or Sanger sequencing is used for pathogenic mutation screening of SHANK3. In this chapter, we report three cases with PMS and summarize the clinical and genetic diagnostic approaches of this condition, highlighting the role of chromosomal microarray technology in the identification of rare, but significantly impacting patient’s life, DNA copy number abnormalities.
Part of the book: Chromosomal Abnormalities