Bisphenol A [4,4′‐(propane‐2,2‐diyl)diphenol] (abbreviated as BPA) is a synthetic xenoestrogenic chemical and endocrine disruptor. It is a most common plasticizer that is used widely to produce epoxy resin and polycarbonate plastics, enters the living system through food and water contamination and generates health hazards. Researches are being conducted to explore the adversity that BPA exerts in living body, and for this reason, model organisms are of scientific choice. Rodents, zebrafish, Drosophila, nematodes, crustaceans and echinoderms are being used for monitoring the effect of BPA on their life history traits, nervous system, endocrine system, reproductive systems, behaviour, etc., which could help us to anticipate what kind of challenges BPA is putting in human life. This systematic review is focused on the latest research trend on BPA toxicity on different model organisms.
Part of the book: Bisphenol A
Down syndrome caused by presence of extra chromosome 21 originates from nondisjunction during parental gametogenesis. For overwhelming cases, the error occurs in oocyte and all the nondisjunction events are not stochastic. With increasing number of research efforts, it has come to know that maternal genetic architecture may be considered as risk factors for chromosomal errors. Polymorphisms of the genes involved in chromosome segregation, recombination and folic acid metabolisms have been investigated for their association with Down syndrome child birth. But the results are conflicting owing to ethnic and sociocultural differences. Here, we have discussed and summarized the outcome of the studies conducted on different population sample from different parts of world and tried to figure out the common polymorphisms, which could be used as makers for preconceptional screening of Down syndrome child birth risk among the women.
Part of the book: Chromosomal Abnormalities