Nucleation is one of the processes that involves at the beginning of the certain process like freezing, melting, boiling, condensation and crystallization. This process normally occurs in the industry, where it is involving the thermodynamic phase that involves work, energy and temperature. The nuclei growth happens when the initial phase changes to the other phase. Unfortunately, the detail for the theory of nucleation is not well-known around the people who are working in the industry, even though there are many reports or writings available. Thus, few types of nucleation like homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and the other theory of nucleation have been summarized in this chapter.
Part of the book: Synthesis Methods and Crystallization
The methods of enhancing recovery of heavy crude oil explore the importance of enhanced oil recovery and how it has grown in recent years due to the increased needs to locate unconventional resources such as heavy oil, shale, and bitumen. Unfortunately, petroleum engineers and managers are not always well-versed in the enhancement methods available when needed or the most economically viable solution to maximize their reservoir’s productivity. Various recovery methods have been explored to extract heavy oil from deep reservoirs or oil spills. This chapter summarizes the details of methods, namely nanoparticle technology, carbon dioxide injection, thermal recovery and chemical injection, which include the methodology as well as the findings.
Part of the book: Processing of Heavy Crude Oils