In the past two decades, we studied the synthesis, modification, and application of titanium silicalite-1 (TS-1) systematically with the goal of exploring its role as a catalyst for industrial selective oxidation reactions. Three factors were primarily considered for catalytic performance: the coordination states of titanium ions, locations of titanium ions, and diffusion properties. The coordination state of Ti, which was the most important of all the three factors, was tuned by controlling the synthesis conditions and posttreating with organic bases. Spectroscopy was used to help establishing the relationship between catalytic activity and coordination state. More active titanium species were located on the external surface by posttreatment, so the catalytic performance for larger molecules was improved significantly. The diffusion properties can be enhanced by posttreatment with organic bases. Furthermore, meso−/microporous titanium silicalite was synthesized by one-pot synthesis with cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as a mesoporous porogen. The TS-1 plate with a short b-axis length was also provided.
Part of the book: Stability and Applications of Coordination Compounds
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials constructed of metal centres with organic linkers, creating one-, two-, or three-dimensional well-organized frameworks with very high surface areas. The study of MOFs has become one of the research hot spots in many fields, owing to the broad potential applications projected for these materials in various areas. It is well recognized that synthesis strategies dictate the structure and thus the properties and performance of the resulted MOFs. This chapter provides a comprehensive up-to-date overview on the modulated synthesis strategies for MOFs. The ability to control crystal morphology and size by a number of modulated synthesis methods is illustrated by the zirconium-terephthalate-based MOF, the UiO-66, and a number of other MOFs.
Part of the book: Synthesis Methods and Crystallization