Global energy shortage will be one of the most critical challenges in the next 50 years. Currently, over 80% of energy consumed is produced from fossil fuels, which is directly linked to global warming and environmental pollution issues. Environment-friendly renewable energy is rapidly gaining importance for the existence of human civilization. A leading source of renewable energy is the solar energy, which is inexhaustible and abundantly available. Solar cells that convert solar energy directly into electricity are drawing considerable attention as a potential turnkey solution to address these challenges. Several approaches have been made in this respect, including the development of better materials and the designs of new solar cell configuration and architecture. Among the innovative materials with potential application in emerging 3G solar cells, graphene and its derivatives such as GO, rGO and G/nanocomposite have been widely explored as transparent conducting electrodes, electron donor or acceptor materials and counter electrodes (CE). In this chapter, the use of graphene nanocomposites has been explored as an electrode material in DSSCs and PSCs. Recently, graphene/metal oxide nanocomposites have been widely used in DSSCs and PSCs and played a significant role in increasing charge transport, reducing charge recombination and thus enhancing the performance of solar cell.
Part of the book: Assorted Dimensional Reconfigurable Materials
Organic-inorganic perovskite materials, due to the simultaneous possession of various properties like optical, electronic and magnetic beside with their structural tunability and good processability, has concerned the attention of researchers from the field of science and technology since long back. Recently, the emergence of efficient solar cells based on organic-inorganic perovskite absorbers promises to alter the fields of thin film, dye-sensitized and organic solar cells. Solution processed photovoltaics based on organic-inorganic perovskite absorbers CH3NH3PbI3 have attained efficiencies of over 25%. The increase in popularity and considerable enhancement in the efficiency of perovskites since their discovery in 2009 is determined by over 6000 publications in 2018. However, although there are broad development prospects for perovskite solar cells (PSCs), but the use of CH3NH3PbI3 results in lead toxicity and instability which limit their application. Therefore, the development of environmental-friendly, stable and efficient perovskite materials for future photovoltaic applications has long-term practical significance, which can eventually be commercialized.
Part of the book: Perovskite and Piezoelectric Materials