Non-typhoidal Salmonellae (NTS) belong to Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica and are common causes of foodborne illnesses in humans. Diarrhea is a common symptom but infection occasionally results in life-threatening systemic involvement. One member of the group, S. enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium has been extensively studied in live animal models particularly mice and cattle, leading to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of NTS and the development of diarrhea, respectively. This comprehensive review provides an insight into the genetic regulation of over 200 virulence determinants and their involvement in the four steps of Salmonella pathogenesis, namely: attachment, invasion, macrophage survival and replication, and systemic dissemination. There is, however, a paucity of information on the functions of some virulence factors present on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs). The emergence of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology and the availability of more bacterial genomes should provide further insights into the biology of virulence determinants, mechanisms of NTS pathogenesis and host adaptation of Salmonella. The new knowledge should translate into improvement and innovations in food safety, and control of salmonellosis as well as better understanding of zoonotic infections in the context of One Health capturing the risks to humans, animals and the environment.
Part of the book: Microorganisms
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (or Salmonella Enteritidis, SE) is one of the oldest members of the genus Salmonella, based on the date of first description and has only gained prominence as a significant bacterial contaminant of food over the last three or four decades. Currently, SE is the most common Salmonella serovar causing foodborne illnesses. Control measures to alleviate human infections require that food isolates be characterized and this was until recently carried out using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and phage typing as the main laboratory subtyping tools for use in demonstrating relatedness of isolates recovered from infected humans and the food source. The results provided by these analytical tools were presented with easy-to-understand and comprehensible nomenclature, however, the techniques were inherently poorly discriminatory, which is attributable to the clonality of SE. The tools have now given way to whole genome sequencing which provides a full and comprehensive genetic attributes of an organism and a very attractive and superior tool for defining an isolate and for inferring genetic relatedness among isolates. A comparative phylogenomic analysis of isolates of choice provides both a visual appreciation of relatedness as well as quantifiable estimates of genetic distance. Despite the considerable information provided by whole genome analysis and development of a phylogenetic tree, the approach does not lend itself to generating a useful nomenclature-based description of SE subtypes. To this end, a highly discriminatory, cost-effective, high throughput, validated single nucleotide based genotypic polymerase chain reaction assay (SNP-PCR) was developed focussing on 60 polymorphic loci. The procedure was used to identify 25 circulating clades of SE, the largest number so far described for this organism. The new subtyping test, which exploited whole genome sequencing data, displays the attributes of an ideal subtyping test: high discrimination, low cost, rapid, highly reproducible and epidemiological concordance. The procedure is useful for identifying the subtype designation of an isolate, for defining the population structure of the organism as well as for surveillance and outbreak detection.
Part of the book: Salmonella spp