The bamboo charcoal is manufactured in earth kilns with the temperature at 700–800°C from Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys heterocycla). Bamboo vinegars, by-products of the charcoal, are collected from the chimney outflow of earthen kiln at six different temperatures at 80–150°C, and with categories over 80, 90–92, 99–102, 120–123, and 145–150°C during the pyrolysis of the charcoal. The preliminary safety evaluation using the Ames test for the bamboo charcoals has no cytotoxicity and mutagenicity toward Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with S9 mix and without S9 mix. This suggests that the charcoal can not only be considered to be a safe pigment for food but also be used as a natural moisture-proof material. The safety of the bamboo vinegars shows that neither cytotoxicity nor mutagenicity toward S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 with S9 mix at the diluting percent content of vinegars is lower than 20.00% or less and without S9 mix is at 33.33% or less, and the reverse mutation assay (antimutagenic activity) denotes that the vinegars express this dose-dependent inhibitory effect against both 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and aflatoxin B1 in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100. The main compounds in the vinegars may partially account for the safety evaluation of biological action.
Part of the book: Bamboo