Ectopic pregnancies occur at 1–2% of all pregnancies. The most common implantation site is the fallopian tube with 95, and 5% are non-tubal located. The aim of this review is to determine the current state of data about the diagnosis and the treatment of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies. Literature is reviewed concerning cervical, interstitial, cornual, ovarian, Caesarean scar, and abdominal ectopic pregnancies from PubMed databases. Non-tubal ectopic pregnancies are often misdiagnosed and overlooked. Clinical symptoms and ultrasound must be combinated to diagnose. Management may involve medical treatment with methotrexate or surgery or a combination according to patient’s clinical stability and the location of ectopic pregnancy. Non-tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare but can be a life-threatening condition due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis and treatment of patients are associated with decreased morbidity and mortality in non-tubal pregnancy and, very importantly, preserve the uterus and subsequent fertility. İncreased experiences have led to choose the best way to manage non-tubal pregnancies and develop new techniques.
Part of the book: Non-tubal Ectopic Pregnancy
Scholars of Arabic use the word “îzâr,” which means defect, and the word “hafd,” which means reducing and shrinking to express circumcision. Besides these, the words tahûr and tahâre are also used to express circumcision. European languages use the common expression female genital mutilation or circumcision to refer to circumcision. However, observations of some female mummies in Egypt and the description of circumcision on ancient Egyptian wall paintings supports the opinion that this tradition dates back very long and that it has continued for many years. The historian Herodotus states that circumcision was practiced by the Phoenicians, Hittites, and Ethiopians. Information obtained shows that circumcision is also practiced in the tropical regions of Africa, the Philippines, and by the tribes of the Upper Amazon and the women of the Australian Arunta tribe. The tradition of female circumcision that is originally a concept of the religions of African tribes has been associated with the religion Islam even though there is no reference to female circumcision at all in the Quran. Female circumcision is a violation of human rights. There is no legal explanation or excuse for persecuting women at young ages with various agendas like religion (!), customs and tradition or health in an area that affects their entire lives. This violation of women’s rights can also be interpreted as a violation of children’s rights.
Part of the book: Circumcision and the Community