Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) and cervical pregnancy are categorized as non-tubal ectopic pregnancy, because these are associated with a high burden of maternal and fetal morbidity including early uterine rupture, prevalence of placenta previa accrete spectrum, massive hemorrhage, and hysterectomy. Although management methods vary according to the week of gestation, recent reviews and reports support an interventional or a combination of surgical and medical approaches for treatment of unruptured CSP and cervical pregnancy rather than medical approach alone. In cases of massive hemorrhage, pressure hemostasis using balloon tamponade should first be performed. If such hemostasis proves to be ineffective, surgical excision or transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) should be selected next. TAE reportedly achieves a high hemostasis rate. However, complications such as subsequent endometrial hypoplasia, menstruation disorder, infertility, placenta accreta, and uterine rupture have been reported, even in cases that have undergone successful hemostasis with TAE using an absorbable embolus. Recently, a minimally invasive hemostatic strategy in obstetrics, which aims to preserve uterine function and enhance the safety of subsequent pregnancies, has been developed. Therefore, we should reconsider uterus-preserving hemostatic strategies for critical hemorrhage and management of non-tubal ectopic pregnancy under these circumstances by using safe and minimally invasive treatment modalities.
Part of the book: Non-tubal Ectopic Pregnancy