Environmental pollution has been rising in the past few decades due to increased anthropogenic activities. Bioremediation is an attractive and successful cleaning technique to remove toxic waste from polluted environment. Bioremediation is highly involved in degradation, eradication, immobilization, or detoxification diverse chemical wastes and physical hazardous materials from the surrounding through the all-inclusive and action of microorganisms. The main principle is degrading and converting pollutants to less toxic forms. Bioremediation can be carried out ex-situ and in-situ, depending on several factors, which include but not limited to cost, site characteristics, type, and concentration of pollutants. Hence, appropriate bioremediation technique is selected. Additionally, the major methodologies to develop bioremediation are biostimulation, bioaugmentation, bioventing, biopiles, and bioattenuation provided the environmental factors that decide the completion of bioremediation. Bioremediation is the most effective, economical, eco-friendly management tool to manage the polluted environment. All bioremediation techniques have its own advantage and disadvantage because it has its own specific applications.
Part of the book: Trace Metals in the Environment