With growth in civilisation and industrialisation, there is an increase in the release of toxic heavy metal ions and dyes into water system, which is of public concern. As a result, appropriate treatment methods have to be implemented in order to mitigate and prevent water pollution. The discovery of nanotechnology has led to the development and utilisation of various nanoadsorbent for the removal of pollutants from water. PANI nanostructures and nanocomposites are noble adsorbents that have gained popularity in addressing water pollution issues and have been reported in literature. In this chapter, the main focus is on the synthesis of PANI nanocomposites and nanostructures and their application as efficient adsorbents for water treatment. Detailed discussions on different synthetic routes and characterisation have been dedicated to applications of these materials and are compared for the adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions and dyes from water.
Part of the book: Trace Metals in the Environment
Malnutrition and poor diet constitute the number one driver of the global burden of disease. Undernutrition is responsible for up to 50% of all deaths in children under the age of 5. In South Africa, 25% of the country’s children suffer from undernutrition. This increases the risk of child mortality as well as contracting infectious diseases. It also affects the physical and intellectual development of the children. The greatest drawback in malnutrition is the deficiency of essential nutraceuticals involved in important biological functions. Innovative technologies such as nanoformulated products are needed for food and agriculture in order to enhance the children’s health. The evaluation and application of various nanoformulated delivery systems will be explored for improving the stability and bioavailability of essential nutraceuticals for consumers.
Part of the book: Nanoemulsions
Water represents one of the essential resources on earth, and all living organisms rely on it for survival. However, freshwater systems are directly under serious threat by human activities. A recent World Health Organization report has estimated that 2 billion people use contaminated water sources. The major organic contaminants in water bodies include organic dyes. These are directly related to the spread of diseases owing to their allergenic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic characteristics. Dyes occur in the environment through untreated industrial effluents. Also, the advancement in human civilisation cannot be considered without the development of modern industries. However, an attempt to limit the resulting impacts of coloured effluents on global freshwater quality has become the focus of recent research. For this reason, the use of efficient, simple, and low-cost methods for the treatment of dyes-containing industrial wastewater could serve as a useful tool. An effort to meet the demand for “green chemistry” and sustainable development has led to several investigations on polysaccharide-based adsorbents. This chapter exposes a critical discussion on the literature concerning the biopolymeric xanthan gum and kappa-carrageenan polysaccharides as adsorbents for dye removal in an aqueous medium. Functionalisation of these biopolymers through graft copolymerisation and inclusion of inorganic nanoparticles for improved adsorption performance is systematically elaborated.
Part of the book: Novel Nanomaterials