Local allergic rhinitis (LAR) is a novel concept defining clinical allergic rhinitis with no evidence of systemic sensitization to aeroallergens. In this unique condition, the allergic response is confined to the nasal mucosa and can be demonstrated using different methods such as the immunoglobulin-E (IgE) level in the nasal secretions, nasal provocation test (NPT), or basophil activation test (BAT) with specific allergens or more sophisticated molecular diagnostic techniques. Furthermore, local allergic rhinitis can be relieved by interventions used to treat systemic allergic conditions such as antihistamines or anti-IgE monoclonal antibodies. Last but not least, several small studies demonstrated the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy for ameliorating LAR symptoms. In this chapter we reviewed old data and new concepts regarding clinical manifestation, plausible mechanisms, and treatments of LAR. The long-standing question whether LAR is an integral part of the “atopic spectrum” or it is a single-organ immune-mediated disease, is yet to be determined.
Part of the book: Rhinosinusitis