Chronic sinusitis leads to unresolved infection and inflammation resulting in tissue remodeling, then further propagates the vicious cycle of deterioration and dysfunction of the sinuses’ natural defense mechanisms, and yet another cycle of infection and mucosal injury. Antibiotic therapy targeting pathogens classically implicated in sinusitis could augment the risk of therapeutic failure through the natural selection of resistant and/or virulent pathogens, especially in the presence of Gram-negative E. coli. Our recent demonstration of highly pathogenic E. coli, detected through intraoperative biopsy of sinus tissue, allowed the resolution of chronic sinusitis symptoms upon E. coli targeted therapy. The isolated E. coli carried three genes, each coding biofilm formation, which may, in part, account for the chronicity of E. coli sinusitis. We recommend that, patients with chronic sinusitis be considered for intraoperative biopsy for unusual pathogens, therefore allowing targeted therapy. In the future, use of vaccines and biofilm inhibitors might be an effective therapeutic consideration.
Part of the book: Rhinosinusitis