Genomic-based information is an essential key to precise therapy referred to as personalized medicine. Its application in autoimmune disease treatment will bring the required breakthrough in medicine. Autoimmune diseases are the disease conditions where the body’s immune system recognizes and generate an immune response against self-antigens. There exist different approaches of which precision medicine data can be utilized in the clinical management of autoimmune diseases; this includes diagnosis, prognosis, stratification and treatment response prediction. Different markers exist to guide clinical decision while several others are still being identified and proposed. This chapter highlights data and databases in precision medicine of autoimmune diseases and the pathway for data sharing. The precision medicine of selected autoimmune diseases was discussed, and the different biomarkers utilized in the diagnosis, prognosis, stratification and response monitoring of such condition were considered.
Part of the book: Innate Immunity in Health and Disease
In recent times, the application of artificial intelligence in facilitating, capturing, and restructuring Big data has transformed the accuracy of diagnosis and treatment of diseases, a field known as precision medicine. Big data has been established in various domains of medicine for example, artificial intelligence has found its way into immunology termed as immunoinformatics. There is evidence that precision medicine tools have made an effort to accurately detect, profile, and suggest treatment regimens for thyroid dysfunction using Big data such as imaging and genetic sequences. In addition, the accumulation of data on polymorphisms, autoimmune thyroid disease, and genetic data related to environmental factors has occurred over time resulting in drastic development of clinical autoimmune thyroid disease study. This review emphasized how genetic data plays a vital role in diagnosing and treating diseases related to autoimmune thyroid disease like Graves’ disease, subtle subclinical thyroid dysfunctions, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, and hypothyroid autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, connotation between environmental and endocrine risk factors in the etiology of the disease in genetically susceptible individuals were discussed. Thus, endocrinologists’ potential hurdles in cancer and thyroid nodules field include unreliable biomarkers, lack of distinct therapeutic alternatives due to genetic difference. Precision medicine data may improve their diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities using artificial intelligence.
Part of the book: Hypothyroidism
Oxidative stress (OS) is a term used to describe the homeostatic oxidation-favoring imbalance between the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) or other compounds causing oxidative stress and the countering activities/levels of enzymatic or non-enzymatic antioxidants. The role of OS in reproduction cannot be underestimated in neither health nor disease. This chapter focuses on the roles of OS in spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis and male sexual activity, and also its effects in female folliculogenesis, steroidogenesis, ovulation, luteogenesis, and pregnancy. Furthermore, OS’s impact on the efficacy of Artificial Reproductive Techniques (ARTs) was assessed, and the impact of antioxidants on reproductive health and sterility were discussed in both males and females. Through available evidence, it appears that oxidative state impairs reproductive processes and causes general disruptions through inflammation, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein alterations and mitochondrial dysfunction. It will be of importance to identify oxidative stress biomarkers specific for each reproductive process, and it seems that more research should be focused on epigenetic characteristics together with oxidative stress in reproductive health and infertility.