Calcium-phosphate levels have an effect on the vascular wall. Calcium is a cation in human body. It is has a crucial effect on intracellular and extracellular mechanisms. Extracellular calcium levels are more than intracellular levels. In total serum, the calcium level is approximately 8.8–10.4. Parathormone and vitamin D regulate blood calcium levels. Phosphorus is more common than calcium in the human body. Most of the phosphorus is present in the skeletal system. Phosphorus level is approximately 2.5–4.5 mg/dl in blood. It is often observed calcification in cardiovascular system in some diseases such as chronic renal failure due to increased calcium-phosphate levels. While the calcification seems in tunica intima layer of the vessel in atherosclerotic disease, it seems in tunica media layer of vessel in chronic renal failure with high uremic level. Vascular calcification is due to arterial stiffness, stenosis, and occlusion. Vascular and valvular calcifications are irreversible. Increased arterial stiffness destroys vascular compliance, causes left ventricular hypertrophy, and disrupts coronary perfusion. As a result, increased vascular calcification is associated with cardiovascular mortality.
Part of the book: New Insight into Cerebrovascular Diseases