Turkey is one of the most important genetic origins of fig (Ficus carica L.) in the world, and it extended to the Mediterranean countries (Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, Portugal.), USA, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, South Caucasia, and Crimea. Fig germplasm in Turkey is located mainly at the Big Meander Valley and Small Meander Valley in the Aegean Region but also widely seen in the Southeast Anatolia, the Marmara, and the Mediterranean regions. Siirt, Bottan, Diyarbakir, Elazig, Gaziantep, Besni, Kahramanmaras, Ceyhan, and Ahir Mountain are the main fig germplasm locations at the Southeast Anatolia and the Mediterranean regions. These germplasm (285 fig cultivars and genotypes) are mainly collected at the orchards of Erbeyli Fig Research Institute in Aydın Province. Fig production of Turkey is about 305.689 tons in 1.152.799 tons of world fig production. Turkey is the biggest fig-producing country and is followed by Greece, the USA, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Dried figs (mainly Sarilop cultivar) are obtained from Aydin Province in the Aegean region, while fresh figs are obtained from the Marmara and Mediterranean regions.
Part of the book: Modern Fruit Industry