The idea of this chapter is that currently available antidiabetic drugs specifically target several points of the T2D pathophysiology but they do not cover all aspects of the disease. In addition, many adverse effects of synthetic antidiabetic agents have been reported. The suggested manuscript is an overview of the available scientific literature focused on antiobesity and antidiabetic potential of selected 42 medicinal and edible plants of the Bulgarian flora. Most of the reports reveal the effect of extracts or their active components on specific biochemical mechanisms. Mechanistic data about hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action are presented for some of the plants. An essential part of this review is dedicated to the target mechanisms behind the effects of the selected plant species. The authors hope that this review will serve as a starting point for future investigations with a contribution to the prevention and therapy of diabetes.
Part of the book: Nutrition in Health and Disease
Cyanoprokaryotes are distributed worldwide and they produce various bioactive compounds, including cyanotoxins. The major route of human exposure to cyanotoxins is the oral intake by using contaminated drinking water, by incidental intake of contaminated water during recreational and professional activities, and by consuming contaminated food or dietary supplements prepared from cyanobacteria. The prolonged chronic exposure to low concentrations of cyanotoxins provokes cell damage and may increase the risk for cancer development. Due to the variety of cyanotoxin chemical structures, different mechanisms of their toxic effects are known. At the same time, some of the natural compounds produced by cyanoprokaryotes have anticancer potential and are promising sources for the development of novel drugs. This chapter is dedicated to the target mechanisms behind the effects of the widely distributed cyanotoxins with an impact on human health, microcystins, nodularins, and cylindrospermopsin.
Part of the book: Medical Toxicology