Part of the book: Carbon Nanotubes
Advancements in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology over the last several decades has been a driving force behind miniaturizing and improving sensor designs. In this work, a specialized cantilever pressure sensor was designed, modeled, and fabricated to investigate the photoacoustic (PA) response of gases to terahertz (THz) radiation under low-vacuum conditions associated with high-resolution spectroscopy. Microfabricated cantilever devices made using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers were tested in a custom-built test chamber in this first ever demonstration of a cantilever-based PA chemical sensor and spectroscopy system in the THz frequency regime. The THz radiation source was amplitude modulated to excite acoustic waves in the chamber, and PA molecular spectroscopy of a gas species was performed. An optical measurement technique was used to evaluate the PA effect on the cantilever sensor; a laser beam was reflected off the cantilever tip and through an iris to a photodiode. As the cantilever movement deflected the laser beam, the beam was clipped by an iris and generated the PA signal. Experimental data indicated a predominantly linear response in signal amplitude from the photodiode measurement technique, which directly correlated to measured cantilever deflections. Using the custom-designed PA chamber and MEMS cantilever sensor, excellent low-pressure PA spectral data of methyl cyanide (CH3CN) at 2 to 40 mTorr range has been obtained. At low chamber pressures, the sensitivity of our system was 1.97 × 10−5 cm−1 and had an excellent normalized noise equivalent absorption (NNEA) coefficient of 1.39 × 10−9 cm−1 W Hz-½ using a 0.5 s signal averaging time.
Part of the book: Progresses in Chemical Sensor
The purpose of this chapter is to familiarize the reader with metamaterials and describe terahertz (THz) spectroscopy within metamaterials research. The introduction provides key background information on metamaterials, describes their history and their unique properties. These properties include negative refraction, backwards phase propagation, and the reversed Doppler Effect. The history and theory of metamaterials are discussed, starting with Veselago’s negative index materials work and Pendry’s publications on physical realization of metamaterials. The next sections cover measurement and analyses of THz metamaterials. THz Time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) will be the key measurement tool used to describe the THz metamaterial measurement process. Sample transmission data from a metamaterial THz-TDS measurement is analyzed to give a better understanding of the different frequency characteristics of metamaterials. The measurement and analysis sections are followed by a section on the fabrication process of metamaterials. After familiarizing the reader with THz metamaterial measurement and fabrication techniques, the final section will provide a review of various methods by which metamaterials are made active and/or tunable. Several novel concepts were demonstrated in recent years to achieve such metamaterials, including photoconductivity, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and phase change material (PCM)-based metamaterial structures.
Part of the book: Terahertz Spectroscopy