The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. As the smallest unit and building blocks of life, cells differ in size, shape, metabolism, reproduction, and growth requirements. Cells reproduce through cell division involving a four-phase (G1, S, G2, M) cell cycle, which is tightly regulated at multiple checkpoints. The resulting growth curve demonstrates that cell population increases in three sequential steps: incubation, exponential hyperplasia, and stagnation/death phases. Cell growth is subject to changes in disease state and/or environmental conditions. This chapter will focus on methods for cell growth measurement, which are grouped into five sections: cell cycle, apoptosis, growth curve, drug-induced proliferation (DIP), and continuous assays. Among the continuous assays, the EZMTT dye allows for long-term tracking of cell growth under various conditions and shows promise in precision medicine by early detection of drug resistance.
Part of the book: Cell Growth