Benefits of Entomophile Pollination in Crops of Brassica napus and Aspects of Plant Floral Biology
By Emerson D. Chambó, Simone C. Camargo, Regina C. Garcia, Carlos
A.L. Carvalho, Maria Claudia C. Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Ludimilla
Ronqui, Claudio Silva Júnior, Pedro R. Santos and Vagner de Alencar
Arnaut de Toledo
Rapeseed (Brassica napus L. var. oleifera) is an oleaginous species of the Brassicaceae family, being the third most produced oleaginous in the world. Rapeseed can produce fruits and seeds from both self-pollination and cross-pollination. However, cross-pollination rate is approximately 30% and may suffer variations due to the abundance and diversity of pollinator insects, cultivar and meteorological conditions. Different researchers have reported that pollination by insects, especially Apis mellifera honeybee, on rapeseed flowers provides an increase in productivity, improving yield and contributing to the uniformity and initial pod establishment. It is estimated that the economic value of A. mellifera honeybees for rapeseed cultivation in Brazil is US$ 8.2 million. The objective of this chapter is gathering data for a compilation of information regarding rapeseed culture and the importance of A. mellifera in Brassica napus pollination.
Part of the book: Brassica Germplasm
Development of Beekeeping: An Analysis Using the Technique of Principal Components
By Emerson Dechechi Chambó, Regina Conceição Garcia, Fernando
Cunha, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho, Daiane de Jesus Oliveira,
Maiara Janine Machado Caldas, Nardel Luiz Soares da Silva,
Ludimilla Ronqui, Claudio da Silva Júnior, Pedro da Rosa Santos and
Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo
Beekeeping is an economic activity of the Brazilian agricultural sector and a powerful tool to achieve sustainable development. However, beekeeping still remains a modest activity compared to other areas, with a lack of technical knowledge and beekeeping practices that need to be standardized. This study represents a proposal for the diagnosis of beekeeping, to facilitate decision-making and to provide a faster development of the beekeeping activity. We investigated the process of adoption of beekeeping practices of 28 beekeepers and the quality of the honey produced by them in the Western region of Paraná, using the technique of Principal Components Analysis after the construction of apicultural indexes. Specifically, the honey produced in the Western region of Paraná be included in the requirements of national and international legislation, but the beekeeping practices adopted still require standardization so that the beekeepers have higher honey production. Also, the transformation of variables into apicultural indexes for later use in the analysis of principal components proved to be efficient to draw a beekeeping profile. Our research proves to be efficient in accurately diagnosing beekeeping bottlenecks, which may enable better decision-making and thus attract new entrepreneurs and increase their relevance to achieve sustainable rural development.
Part of the book: Insect Science
Growth of Fungal Cells and the Production of Mycotoxins
By Márcia Regina Ferreira Geraldo Perdoncini, Maria Josiane Sereia, Fabio Henrique Poliseli Scopel, Maysa Formigoni, Eliane Sloboda Rigobello, Stéfani Caroline Beneti, Flavia Aparecida Reitz Cardoso, Livia Benossi Marchi, Claudio Gomes da Silva Junior, Paula Gimenez Milani Fernandes, Tuan Henrique Smielevski de Souza, Priscila Wielewski, Erica Gomes de Lima, Angelivia Gregório, Maria Rosa Trentin Zorzenon, Juliana Cristina Castro, Vanessa de Cássia Mendes Del Bel, Magali Soares dos Santos Pozza and Leila Larisa Medeiros Marques
Some filamentous fungi are able to grow in food and produce toxic metabolites. It occurs mainly in grains, cereals, oilseeds and some by-products. The growth of fungi in a particular food is governed largely by a series of physical and chemical parameters. The production of toxic metabolites is not confined to a single group of molds irrespective of whether they are grouped according to structure, ecology, or phylogenetic relationships. Mycotoxins can be carcinogenic and cause several harmful effects to both human and animal organisms, in addition to generating large economic losses. The major mycotoxins found in food are the aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxins, patulin, zearalenone, and trichothecenes, generally stable at high temperatures and long storage periods. Considering the difficult prevention and control, international organizations for food safety establish safe levels of these toxins in food destined for both human and animal consumption. Good agricultural practices and control of temperature and moisture during storage are factors which contribute significantly to inhibit the production of mycotoxins. The use of some fungistatic products, such as essential oils and antioxidants, as well as physical, mechanical, chemical, or thermal processing, represents important methods to have the concentration of mycotoxins reduced in food.
Part of the book: Cell Growth