Leak, perforation, and fistula are the three main types of transmural defects in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Evolution of interventional endoscopic\\ techniques as well as widespread use of laparoscopic and bariatric surgical procedures has contributed to the rising incidence of GI defects. The basic principle for management of leaks and fistula is to provide a barricade to the flow of luminal contents across the defect. This can be achieved either by a surgical or endoscopic method. Minimally invasive closure techniques such as clipping, stenting, suturing, and endoscopic vacuum therapy have revolutionized the management of GI defects. This chapter deals with endoscopic techniques and their present status in the management of luminal GI leaks and fistula.
Part of the book: Advanced Endoscopy