The aim of this chapter is to make a brief understanding on Metabolomics identification, extraction, and analysis techniques. As the name suggests, Metabolomics is the study of metabolites present in the body fluid (blood, plasma, urine, and saliva) or body parts (muscles, bone, tissue, and cells). These might be known metabolites or unknown metabolites. The metabolites can be endogenous (present in the body) or exogenous (formed by consuming external medicinal product). The molecular mass of these metabolites is usually lower (50–1500 Dalton) than the proteins and macromolecules. These metabolites can be extracted using various techniques such as solid phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, or simple protein precipitation. Extracted sample of metabolite then can be analyzed qualitatively or quantitatively using numerous analytical techniques such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), dry blood spot (DBS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet visible (UV) spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), ELISA, and chemiluminescence. Sensitivity of detection is the key factor, among many others, to decide which technique would be suitable for analysis. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) is the latest and most sensitive technique among all the available methodology till date that has been extensively and exclusively used in current scenario.
Part of the book: Herbs and Spices