Anthropogenic and natural processes caused significant changes in Lake Kinneret and its drainage basin ecosystems. Climate change of warming and dryness induced a decline in the lake water level. Changes in the composition structure of the phytoplankton assemblages were enhanced by the decline of nitrogen availability resulting in reduction of Peridinium and enhancement of Cyanobacteria. Increase of the phosphorus availability enhanced Chlorophyta and diatoms. Nutrient export from the Hula Valley to Lake Kinneret is discharge-dependent. The external input decline of organic nitrogen and total dissolved phosphorus is due to anthropogenic achievements. Nitrogen decline and slight increase of phosphorus in Lake Kinneret were followed by Peridinium decline and increase of non-Peridinium algae. The resulting change of food-web structure and water quality in the Kinneret was a shift from phosphorus to nitrogen limitation, which enhanced cyanobacteria.
Part of the book: Sustainability Assessment at the 21st century
Lake Kinneret and its watershed have undergone significant structural modifications. Some of them are anthropogenic, and others are natural. Among natural modifications, the climate change is prominent. Among man-made changes, the drainage of the Hula Valley, construction of the National Water Carrier designating Lake Kinneret as a national resource of drinking water, construction of the Dam on the lake south outlet, agricultural developments in the Hula Valley, and others are included. Additional factors that recently have a significant impact on the management of the lake ecosystem are the development of ocean water desalinization capabilities. Nevertheless, these two ecosystems were carefully studied directed by limnological and wetland-agricultural scientific trait. One parameter was not yet accounted intensively, the assurance of long-term sustainability. This paper provides an overviewed insight into the conducted principles of management toward sustainable management after the establishment of the modifications as an attempt of predictive development outline.
Part of the book: Landscape Architecture