Wine is an ancient and popular alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes. Different yeasts and bacteria strains produce different styles of wines. Over time, the inoculation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains to produce wine has been the common practice in the wine industry, and the other species of yeasts have been considered undesirable for the alcoholic fermentation. However, in the last decades, the use of wild or indigenous yeasts and lactic acid bacteria strains has significantly increased. Wild yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are interesting microorganisms that contribute to differentiate the wine character of a region. The production of wines by spontaneous or inoculated fermentations by selected wild microorganisms may be an interesting tool to improve the quality of wines. This chapter summarizes relevant aspects of these microorganisms related to this scientific field.
Part of the book: Yeasts in Biotechnology
The light-struck taste (LST) of wine is a defect that mainly occurs in bottled wines exposed to light. Factors that influence the onset of the LST in wines were reported. The effect of grapes and wine composition, the alcoholic fermentation process, the yeast strains used and the conditions of yeast nutrition were included. The external factors, such as bottle color, time and nature to light exposure and type of closure were considered. Finally, the analysis of the main molecules related to this default (sulfur volatile compounds and their amino acids and riboflavin precursors) and possible prevention measurements were also exposed.
Part of the book: Grapes and Wine