The main purpose of yeast supplementation is to treat rumen microbial dysbiosis which may enhance the nutrient utilization leading to enhanced animal growth and productivity. Yeast improves rumen ecosystem by two ways: by direct production of digestive enzymes and growth stimulator and by promoting the growth and function of beneficial microbiota. Yeasts have potential to produce metabolites, which stimulate the growth, like rumen acetogens and antimicrobial compounds which inhibit potential pathogens. The yeast probiotic impact on animals depend on different interacting factors including animal breed, supplemented dose, type, diet, strain, physiological stage and feeding system. In the situation of a high feed cost all over the world, probiotic yeast gives a useful nutritional strategy which allows increasing diet digestibility and consequently enhances the performance in ruminants in cost-effective manner. Many yeast culture-based products are commercially available worldwide, but their effectiveness as probiotic dietary supplement in a particular breed is mostly questionable. Therefore, exploration of the new indigenous probiotic strain is of great interest in this context. The probiotic strains of same ecological origin may be more compatible with rumen microbiome giving maximum outputs. Moreover, the breed specific probiotic yeast is an economical and viable option for farmers to overcome the effects of malnutrition.
Part of the book: Yeast
Probiotic yeast enhanced the ruminal gut microbial balance by producing intercellular effectors and important metabolites. The impact of yeast addition on animal health is influenced by different interlinked factors including animal genomics, its gut microbiota, and environment. Therefore, all factors should be considered regarding achieving the maximum outputs from animal probiotic yeast. In the situation of a high feeding cost, microbial feed supplements provide a suitable nutritional approach, which allows increased nutrient digestion rate and accordingly improves animal performance. Many yeast products are commercially available, but their efficiency as probiotic dietary addition in a particular breed is mostly questionable. Therefore, identification of ideal probiotic yeast strain is of great interest in this context. Innovative methods in relation to develop new probiotic are mainly focused on the exploring novel microbial strains from indigenous sources. It has been noted that for the identification of best probiotic strain for the host, a linkage between culture-independent and culture-dependent methods is a functional step. In this chapter, we will discuss the mode of action of probiotic yeast on animal lower gut microbiota and identification of ideal probiotic yeast by using advanced molecular methods.
Part of the book: Yeasts in Biotechnology
Probiotics are essential for the effective growth of beneficial bacteria present in enteric line. They help in the physiological functions of new-born calves that are highly susceptible to a variety of fatal syndromes. The criterion for the selection of strains for the design of probiotic products are based on retaining functional health characteristics. Samples from Nili-Ravi buffaloes were collected, and rumen strains are identified for probiotic product. Microscopic techniques with different biochemical tests and molecular techniques such as BLAST have performed for identification. Following species of Weisella has been identified based on genotypic analysis (16S rRNA) under accession number MK336765 (F2) and MK336779 (F4) in the NCBI GenBanK. The strains sharing some of the specific properties evaluated were identified genetically, and their compatibility and exopolysaccharide production were assayed. All of this will be helpful in the production of multi-stain-probiotic product for the nourishment of dairy calves.
Part of the book: Lactation in Farm Animals
The gut associated microbiota of animal plays crucial rule in the conversion to accessible nutrients for improve animal health and well-beings. Probiotic yeast (PY) is commonly use to manipulate the gut microbial balance by inhibits the disease-causing microbes and increase the number and function of desirable microbes. PY produce many fermentation metabolites, intercellular effectors, minerals and enzymes that make it an idea nutritive feed supplement for ruminants. The mode of action of the PY is depends on the animal biological inheritance, breed, managemental condition and microbial feeding type. Therefore, PY must formulate using same ecological origin, alone with desirable target; as it would be more compatible with gut ecoysytem and would yield maximum outputs as compare to non-target or foreign probiotic (FP). Therefore, for development of the Indigenous Target Probiotic (ITP), the isolation source must be same ecological region with desirable target like improve animal health and productivity. In the situation of the increase food storage around the world, ITP may provide a useful feed supplements to improve the food production in cost effective manner as compare to FP. Probiotic effectiveness is considered to be population/breed/target specific due to difference in the feed intake, change gut microflora, different food habits and different host-microbial interactions. In this chapter, we will highlight the preparation of the ITP yeast and its mode of action on animal gut microbiota.
Part of the book: Saccharomyces
Functional foods are responsible for the improvement of human health and can significantly reduce the probability of disease in the host body. Functional foods are directly or indirectly part of different food ingredients and can induce functional activities in the host biological system. Functional foods are present in fruits, vegetables, dairy, bakery, cereals and meat products. Functional foods are not additional food supplements, drugs or antibiotics, they are the main component of a normal human and animal diet. Functional foods are cost-effective and easily available in the market. Daily consumption of functional foods can prevent the gastrointestinal diseases and also provide ease against different acute and chronic diseases. Adequate administration of probiotics in a human food can convert a normal food into functional food. This chapter will highlight the effective role of functional food in an individual’s daily life.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Functional Food