Nocturnal enuresis is a condition with complex etiology affecting plenty of children and families. Even though multifarious clinical trials and studies have been designed and completed, some inconclusive results on nocturnal enuresis confuse clinicians. This article aims to provide useful information for clinicians by summarizing the existing evidence on nocturnal enuresis and discussing the effectiveness and safety of different treatments. Nocturnal enuresis mainly results from the disorders related to central nervous system, which may cause nocturnal polyuria, nighttime bladder capacity decline, arousal disorder, and various accompanying diseases. We discussed the efficacy and safety of different treatments for monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis, including standard therapies, simple behavioral interventions, complex behavioral interventions, alarm therapy, desmopressin and other drugs, biofeedback therapy, electrical stimulation, acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, and so on. Alarm is still the most effective single therapy with lower relapse rate. Desmopressin has efficacy mainly in children with nocturnal polyuria. Children with detrusor overactivity or decreasing functional bladder capacity can choose anticholinergics. Additionally, tricyclic drugs, biofeedback therapy, electrical stimulation, acupuncture, massage, and so on are therapeutic options for children with nocturnal enuresis.
Part of the book: Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction