Moderate wine consumption may be associated with specific health benefits and a healthy lifestyle. However, increased amounts of ethanol are cytotoxic and associated with adverse health outcomes. Alcohol reduction in wine might be an avenue to reduce alcohol related harm without forcing consumers to compromise on lifestyle and benefit from positive aspects of moderate consumption. The aim of this review is to give an overview of viticultural and pre and post fermentation methods to produce low-alcohol wine, and to summarize the current evidence on the consumer acceptance and behaviour related to low-alcohol wine. Strategies for the labelling and marketing of wines with reduced alcohol content are discussed.
Part of the book: Advances in Grape and Wine Biotechnology
Overweight and obesity are major risk factors for chronic disease and in the past 40–50 years portion sizes of offered foods, especially energy-dense, nutrient poor varieties, have dramatically increased along with global rates of overweight and obesity. Studies have shown that offering larger portion sizes result in increased food intake, known as the ‘portion size effect’. This is likely due to consumption norms, the expected satiation and satiety of larger portions and the effect of unit bias. In addition, inconsistencies between serving sizes on nutrition information labelling compared to national dietary guidelines, makes it difficult for consumers to estimate and select appropriate portion sizes. Consumers find larger portion sizes more appealing due to their perceived value for money however, the nutritive value of the food is most often not acknowledged. Nutrient profiling models, which classify foods based on their nutrient density per unit cost may help consumers make healthier food choices. This narrative review aims to provide an overview of the portion size effect and discusses the application of nutrient profile score-based labels as a means of promoting nutrient density as value for money to influence consumer choices.
Part of the book: The Health Benefits of Foods