Nanoemulsions, kinetically stable and thermodynamically unstable colloidal liquid-in-liquid dispersions with droplet sizes in the order of 20–500 nm mainly consist of oil, surfactants, co surfactants and an aqueous phase. There are various methods for the fabrication of Nano-emulsions which can be divided based on the energy required—High energy emulsification methods and Low energy emulsification methods. High energy emulsification includes methods like Ultra sonication, high pressure homogenization using either microfluidizers or high-pressure homogenizers. Low energy emulsification has drawn attention since they are soft, nondestructive and cause no damage to encapsulated molecules and includes methods like phase inversion temperature, solvent displacement, phase inversion composition method. Nanoemulsions are best suited for drug delivery systems because of their lipophilic nature, optical clarity and surface area. Owing to their nature to prevent flocculation and inherent creaming, nanoemulsions find an important place in the cosmetic industry also. This chapter provides an insight into the use of nanogels, emulsion based wet wipes and PEG free nanoemulsions in cosmetics. In the food industry, nanoemulsions are utilized for the production of functional foods. Some of the patented nanoemulsions and their commercial applications have also been mentioned.
Part of the book: Nanoemulsions