Part of the book: Smart Nanoparticles Technology
The use of nano-emulsions has great advantages over conventional macro-emulsions since the small droplet size allows to expand the options of applications besides presenting a greater surface area. This chapter focuses on the formulation of nano-emulsions of citrus essential oils in water, stabilized with a natural gum (mesquite gum), using a high pressure microfluidic homogenizer to obtain appropriate physicochemical characteristics and kinetic stability. When establishing the general conditions of the methods for obtaining nano-emulsions by high pressure homogenization, several formulations presented stability and size corresponding to nano-emulsions, and these were monitored during 4 months in order to study their stability as a function of time. Taking into account the results of size and stability, the best nano-emulsion obtained had a composition of Persian lemon oil (9.86%), mesquite gum (4.93%) Tween 80 (4.89%), Span 20 (1.45%), and deionized water (78.86%) with an average droplet size of 40 nm. In addition, the antibacterial activity studies also showed that this formulation had the best performance against common bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The analysis of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) shows that it is possible to prevent the growth of these particular bacteria using 6.25% of the best nano-emulsion formulations.
Part of the book: Nanoemulsions
Supporting a photocatalyst, such as titania nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), is a good strategy to improve its performance since it can facilitate the photocatalyst recovery from the aqueous media and provides a high surface area for pollutant adsorption. Among the several advanced functional materials used as TiO2 NP support, the hierarchical meso/macroporous SiO2 spheres not only show the advantages associated to its chemical nature but also the dendritic fibrous structure provides a porous network that offers many benefits to be exploited in optical and catalytic devices. In this chapter, different synthetic approaches to design hierarchical meso/macroporous silica and the strategies to support TiO2 NPs regarding the photocatalytic performance of these materials are shown.
Part of the book: Concepts of Semiconductor Photocatalysis