Taking into account that the imidazole ring has π-electron redundancy, condensed benzimidazole derivatives have attracted our attention as a promising class for the search for antioxidant substances. Synthesis was carried out, and information on the antioxidant activity of imidazo- and tetrahydropyrimido benzimidazoles was provided. Highly active antioxidant substance enoxifol has been revealed. The data on the synthesis and study of the pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, and toxicological properties of the new antioxidant compound enoxifol are presented. The antioxidant activity of the compound is due to its ability to inactivate superoxide, hydroxyl, and peroxyl radicals, thereby reducing the overall oxidation rate due to a decrease in the total initiation rate. It has been shown that enoxifol has hepatoprotector, antihypoxic, cerebroprotective, nootropic, stress-protective, neuropsychotropic, actoprotective, cardioprotective, antiaggregant, and antithrombogenic properties and is able to prevent rheological disorders in diabetes mellitus.
Part of the book: Antioxidants
Literature data on the insulinogenic effect of 2-aminobenzimidazole prompted us to investigate its novel derivatives, particularly those containing an additional fused cycle in C1,2-α position, including imidazole, dihydroimidazole, or tetrahydropyrimidine ring. Consensus analysis of the hypoglycemic effect of these compounds performed with IT Microcosm and PASS system revealed that activity is mostly characteristic for N9-2,3-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]benzimidazole derivatives. Substructural analysis of hypoglycemic activity identified substituents that determine the greatest pharmacological effect. According to the in silico assessment of the ADME properties, RU-254 was nominated as a lead compound due to the most optimal calculated and experimental activity and pharmacokinetic parameters. Preclinical studies have shown that identified compound has a pronounced insulinogenic effect and hypoglycemic effect, both in intact animals and in animals with experimental diabetes mellitus. RU-254 also reduces the level of glycated hemoglobin upon chronic administration, slightly decreases the activity of DPP-4, and increases the average number of Langerhans islets in the pancreas. Pharmaceutical drug formulation of RU-254 was developed and investigated for pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and toxicological properties. The dosage form of the drug under the name limiglidol (compound RU-254, diabenol) was evaluated in the full cycle of clinical studies that confirmed the safety, tolerability, and prominent antidiabetic properties of the drug.
Part of the book: Chemistry and Applications of Benzimidazole and its Derivatives