The free radicals are reactive molecules with electron-rich groups produced during metabolic reactions occurring in the cells. These free radicals are collectively known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls species are under the group of ROS, and nitric oxide and peroxynitrites are under the group of RNS. The malondialdehyde that reacts with LDL-C indirectly induced the risk of atherosclerosis. The protein carbonyls acts as marker of protein oxidation and exerts damage to proteins. The nitric oxide plays an important role in DNA damage, inflammation, proliferation of cancer cells, and dysfunction of apoptosis. The peroxynitrites could induce the process of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and may exert chronic damage to all biomolecules. The aim of the present study is that the free radicals may react with biomolecules of the cells and play an important role in the development of chronic disease conditions in the humans.
Part of the book: Antioxidants
Saliva is produced and secreted by salivary glands. The basic secretary units of salivary glands are clusters of acini cells. It is fluid that contains water, electrolytes, mucus, and enzymes, all of which flow out of the acinus into collecting ducts, certainly one of the most important components and an integral component to oral health. The protective role and benefits including buffering, remineralization in the healthy oral mucosa, immune defense, digestion, lubrication, diagnostic purpose, and proteome analysis are fulfilled by saliva. It aids in maintaining mucosal integrity and indigestion through salivary enzymes. The functions of saliva in maintaining oral health and the main factors that cause alterations in salivary secretion and the importance of saliva in caries development and bacterial plaque formation are discussed, and also its role and functions and organic and inorganic constituents in saliva are discussed. This is of great importance in ruminants, which have non-secretory forestomachs. Diseases of the salivary glands and ducts are not uncommon in animals and man, and excessive salivation is a symptom of almost any lesions in the oral cavity.
Part of the book: Saliva and Salivary Diagnostics
Tobacco is consumed in two forms named as smoking and smokeless tobacco. The electronic cigarettes are under the form of smoking tobacco. The electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) exposure has increased in recent years to the market. Many e-cigarettes contain nicotine, the primary most addictive agent in all tobacco products. We investigated the relationship between e-cigarettes and human health risks. These products may deliver sufficient nicotine for physiological responses and affects the all organs and tissues like nervous, cardiovascular, and pulmonary systems by exhibiting the effects of cytotoxic, decrease in heart rate, and extensive pulmonary damage. The e-cigarettes cannot be regarded as safe even though they are less harmful.
Part of the book: Smoking