The prevalence of gestational diabetes risen in several populations during the past 20 years, and increased direct and indirect healthcare costs, including those for insulin treatment. Establishing the optimal treatment and initiation momentum are critical to achieve glycemic control and minimize the impact on fetal development and perinatal complications. Insulin is the only therapy that does not cross the placenta, and some of its types were proved to be safe in pregnancy. Intrapartum management is based on intravenous insulin administration, and standard protocols should be implemented in every center. Postpartum management requires special attention, as insulin necessary has a fast decline exposing mothers to hypoglycemia.
Part of the book: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Metformin or dimethyl biguanide is the oral antidiabetic drug with the most extensive experience of prescribing in the clinical practice of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this chapter, we reviewed the indications, contraindications, and adverse drug reactions (ADR) of metformin. The most significant adverse drug reactions of metformin are lactic acidosis, allergies, hypoglycemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, altered taste, and gastrointestinal intolerance. Metformin is contraindicated in severe chronic diseases (hepatic, renal, and cardiac failure) or acute complications of diabetes (ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar state). Metformin is considered by all international guidelines the first-line treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) together with medical, nutritional therapy. It is one of the most prescribed molecules worldwide. Furthermore, metformin can also be prescribed for other diseases like polycystic ovary syndrome or prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance/fasting hyperglycemia). Recent studies have shown positive results concerning the use of metformin for cardiovascular or neuroprotective effects; also, several scientific papers are suggesting an antitumor or antiaging effect of metformin. Having such an excellent efficiency in practice, thus predicting its sustainability on the pharmaceutical market, research is directed toward characterizing metformin action on bacteria genera in the gut. Modifying the microbiota composition by pre- and probiotics could improve metformin action.
Part of the book: Metformin