Nasal cytology is an important diagnostic tool in nasal disorders, especially those regarding nasal mucosa. This technique allows clinicians to observe the morphology and the structure of nasal epithelium cells—such as ciliated, mucous-secreting, striated, and basal cells—and to detect the presence of degenerative or phlogistic phenomena in the respiratory epithelium. Moreover, it makes it easy to identify the presence of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cell. Over the past few years, nasal cytology allowed researchers to discover new clinical issues that were still unexplored: the nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophils, the nonallergic rhinitis with mast cells, the nonallergic rhinitis with neutrophils, and the nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophils and mast cells. Nasal cytology is easy to perform and barely invasive; therefore, it can easily be repeated. Since it makes it possible to evaluate the patient’s response to a therapy, the technique is a very useful tool in follow-up checks of nasal disorders. We have reported in the following chapter our working experience, and we observed the results of cytological exams performed in our Center from 2013 to 2018. We therefore developed an easy and intuitive classification of sinonasal chronic inflammatory diseases.
Part of the book: Rhinosinusitis