Part of the book: Update on Mechanisms of Hormone Action
The present knowledge on the androgens role in cardiovascular physiology is not fully completed. It remains unclear whether low serum testosterone concentrations in men are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or a marker of the presence of CVD. However, we demonstrated that endogenous testosterone levels may be implicated in CVDs. Androgens role in modulating cardiovascular function is one of the highest importances, given that its deficiency is strongly associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and cardiac hypertrophy. Although significant and independent association between testosterone levels and cardiovascular events in elderly men have not been confirmed in large prospective studies, cross-sectional studies, however, suggested that low testosterone levels in elderly men are associated with CVDs. The results of androgen therapy are not also conclusive. Perhaps, the effects of testosterone treatment of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity have not been extensively examined in control studies. Data on male animal experimentation of the effect of testosterone replacement therapy are either neutral or beneficial on the development of atherosclerosis. Since circulatory androgen levels modulation is expected to cause many other side effects, it seems to be essential to develop a strategy to target androgen receptor for better treating the CVDs.
Part of the book: Chemistry and Biological Activity of Steroids