The modern power system and future ones include several intelligent devices. It also integrates renewable energy sources, energy storage, energy microgrid control system, hybrid networks, and smart grids with the wide application of information technology and communication. The most crucial goal in the smart grid application is improving safety reliability within the network. Recent studies have recommended the development of smart grid technology that enhances the reliability of electric power systems increases efficiency and improves the detection of faults for protection; this will reduce the duration of interruption of the number of customers affected by the outages. Moreover, smart grid technology decreases the power loss of energy usage and improves the efficiency of the system. And protection is one of the most important challenges facing smart grid deployment. In this chapter, protection for smart grids using differential relays is presented. The differential scheme is a very reliable method of ensuring the safety of protected areas. This chapter discusses the differential relay parameters with various fault conditions. Therefore, the protection scheme affirms the rapid separation of the fault zone to reduce damage to the equipment. The simulation results show that the method is effective and reliable.
Part of the book: Micro-grids
The production of energy from water represents large amounts of clean and renewable energy. However, only 30% of this energy has been developed so far. Hydropower, particularly hydropower plants, is not only environmentally friendly but also economical, and operates more efficiently than any other renewable energy system. Hydropower plants are largely automated and have relatively low operating costs. The main components of the power system must be continuously monitored and protected to maintain the quality and reliability of the power source. This task is provided by the data collection, monitoring and protection system. Turbines must be protected not only by short circuits but also by abnormal conditions. The proposed protection has been designed to avoid damaging the original power (motor or turbine), this usually happens when the generator fails, and the machine operates as a synchronous motor connected to the power system. In this case, the generator becomes an active load, causing a rise in temperature and severe damage to the main turbine, and hence it becomes a need to quickly detect these conditions. This study proposes a new controller for Neuro-Fuzzy to prevent reverse power flow and to keep the quality and reliability of supply. Fuzzy system network has attracted various scientific and engineering researchers. The new feature of this work is to adjust the membership function as a reverse mechanism derived of the Fuzzy Logic Controller. The smart meter network is the basis of the smart grid. In this study, smart grid meters were implemented using ZigBee technology based on wireless sensor networks. The ZigBee network of wireless sensors due to its low battery, low power consumption, become more useful than other wireless communication systems to provide a high-performance measurement. This study shows the ZigBee network using the OPNET simulation. Depending on the performance, parameters were analysed to understand the operating characteristics of the star, tree, and mesh.
Part of the book: Telecommunication Systems