This chapter addresses the power quality of grid-connected microgrids in steady state. Three different power quality issues are evaluated: the voltage drop, the harmonic distortion, and the phase unbalance. A formulation for an energy management algorithm for microgrids is proposed under the form of a mixed-integer linear optimization including harmonic load flows. It handles both the optimization of the scheduling of all the generation, storage, and load assets, and the resolution of power quality issues at the tertiary level of control by adjusting the levels of certain types of loads within the system. This algorithm is simulated for different scenarios on a conceptual test-case microgrid with residential, industrial, and commercial loads. The results show that the demand-side management mechanism inside the algorithm can adapt efficiently the consumption behavior of certain loads, so that the voltage drop, the voltage total harmonic distortion, and the voltage unbalance factor meet the required standards at every node of the microgrid during the day. It is also highlighted that the microgrid can gradually reduce the purchase of power from the utility grid to which it is connected if the electricity price on the spot market increases.
Part of the book: Micro-grids