In this chapter, a water-filled square cavity with left hot wall and right cold wall was numerically investigated. The hot and cold wall temperatures are 10°C and 0°C respectively to examine the density inversion of natural convection water, i.e. water at 4°C. In the middle of the square, there are circular and elliptical bodies to study fluid–structure interaction in terms of the thermohydraulic behavior and entropy generation. 2D numerical simulation was performed using finite volume method in Ansys fluent software with the assumption of laminar flow. The simulation results are compared with benchmark data to determine reliability. The results indicate that the body insertions increase the convection heat transfer coefficients at the best heat transfer positions due to impingement heat transfer. An increase in heat transfer rate of 1.06 times is observed in the case of circular body compared to none. There are three primary eddies in the cavity with bodies, whereas the cavity without body has two primary eddies. Maximum entropy generation was found in the upper right corner of cavity mainly due to high horizontal temperature gradient. Bodies of circle and vertical ellipse have almost the same thermohydraulic and entropy generation characteristics due to the same horizontal dimension which mainly effects on the downward natural convection current. The entropy generation of cavity with circular body is 1.23 times higher than that of the cavity without body. At positions y/L = 1 on the hot wall and y/L = 0.74 on the cold wall, the convection heat transfer coefficient is close to zero due to stagnant fluid.
Part of the book: Computational Overview of Fluid Structure Interaction
The parabolic trough solar collector has a very high absorber tube temperature due to the concentration of solar radiation. The high temperature leads to large heat loss to the environment which reduces efficiency of the parabolic trough collector. The heat loss reduction can be obtained by adopting a multi-pass fluid flow arrangement. In this chapter, airflow travels in three passes of the receiver to absorb heat from the glass covers and absorber tube to decrease surface temperatures. 1D mathematical model is developed to evaluate effective efficiency and the temperature distribution of surfaces and fluid. The mathematical modeling is based on air temperature gradients and solved by a numerical integration. Diameter ratios of outer glass to inner glass (r23) and inner glass to absorber tube (r12), Reynolds number (Re), and tube length (L) are varied to examine the efficiency and the temperature distribution. Results showed that the highest efficiency is archived at r23 = 1.55 and r12 in the range of 1.45 to 1.5. The efficiency increases with Re and decreases with L due to dominant heat transfer in terms of thermohydraulic behavior of a concentrating solar collector. With the optimum ratios, absorber tube temperature can reduce 15 K compared with another case.
Part of the book: Heat Exchangers