Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are noncoding transcripts consisting of a diverse class of long RNAs of more than 200 nucleotides in length. Recent studies have shown that lncRNAs are involved in cell signal transduction pathways, cell cycle and cell death regulation, chromatin remodeling, and gene expression regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. They are also involved in the metastatic process of different types of tumors, such as urothelial carcinoma, colon carcinoma, breast carcinoma, lung carcinoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, lncRNAs demonstrate precise expression patterns in specific tissues and cells and therefore play important roles in cell differentiation and tissue development. In this chapter, we review the molecular mechanisms of lncRNA cell functions and their involvement in the pathogenesis, progression, and metastasis of osteosarcoma, a rare bone tumor of childhood and adolescence. We also review emerging clinical implications of lncRNA use as potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets, as well as their putative involvement in drug resistance, in osteosarcoma progression, and in therapeutic interventions.
Part of the book: Osteosarcoma