Primary bone tumors are rare, but osteosarcoma (OS) is the fourth commonest non-hematological primary neoplasm of the bone in the adolescence, and the other three commonest neoplasms, in descending order, are leukemia, brain tumors, and lymphoma. The commonest presenting complaints are swelling and aches. These tumors cannot be diagnosed without the help of radiology. There is a wide age range of these neoplasms commonly appearing in the second and third decade of life with a peak incidence in early teens. Males are affected more than females. The exact cause of osteosarcoma is unknown. However, a number of risk factors, like genetic predisposition, some existing bone diseases, environmental risk factors, and radiations, have been identified. If the bone tumors are viewed by clinical, radiological, and histopathological perspectives, the correct diagnosis can be made easily. Chemotherapy combined with surgery is the standard treatment modality with better 5-year survival rates. Elevated AKP is an important prognostic factor in this malignancy.
Part of the book: Osteosarcoma