The Wnt signal transduction plays a vital role in regulating development throughout the animal kingdom. The Wnt signal transduction is complex, including Wnt ligands, receptors, coreceptors, transducers, transcription factors, antagonists, agonists and their modulators, and target genes. It is classified into β-catenin-dependent canonical and independent non-canonical Wnt (mainly planar cell polarity and Wnt/Ca2+) signaling pathways. Wnt signaling pathway is causative to multiple human diseases. Gene mutations from the components of WNT signaling machinery have been identified to relate with low or high bone mass diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta, Robinow syndrome, osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome, and sclerosteosis. In this review, we provide an update of the Wnt signaling pathway and the bone diseases caused by the aberrant components of the pathways.
Part of the book: Osteogenesis and Bone Regeneration