Orf is one of the most widespread viral diseases worldwide, usually benign and self-limiting, and mainly affects not only sheep and goats, but also various other ruminants and mammals. The causative agent, orf virus (ORFV) is a member of the genus parapoxvirus, owing to its zoonotic importance and ability to cross-infect other species sporadically. ORFV encodes virulence and immunomodulatory factors that interfere with host inflammatory effect and antiviral immune mechanisms and induces a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by Th2-related cytokines. The ORFV has evolved several mechanisms to survive in the presence of the immune system, resulting in repeated infections. Currently, ORFV has been developed as vaccines in veterinary field. The unique host immune escape ability obtained by ORFV has made it one of the important candidates for prevention and treatment of various diseases (including chronic viral diseases, tumor, and liver fibrosis).
Part of the book: Systems Biology