The CuFe(2−x)EuxO4 (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) nanoparticles are synthesized by solution combustion method. The influence of Eu3+ on the structural, morphological, dielectrical, and humidity sensing study is recorded. The XRD pattern peaks of the as-prepared CuFe(2−x)EuxO4 (where x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) nanoparticle confirm the polycrystalline spinel cubic structure with a small amount of CuO impurity phase at 38.87° and 48.96°. Surface morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the nanoparticles, and their respective average grain size was estimated using Image software. Chemical composition of all prepared samples was analyzed by EDS spectra. The dielectric parameters of AC conductivity, electric modulus, and impedance of the samples were measured over a range of frequencies from 0.1 KHz to 1 MHz at room temperature. Europium-doped copper ferrite samples showed good humidity sensing response, response and recover times, and stability over a %RH range of 11–91%. These types of samples are very useful for sensor application, battery applications, electronic applications, and automotive applications.
Part of the book: Mineralogy
The structural, microstructural, and magnetic properties of Mn1-xBixFe2O4 (where x = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2) nanoparticles prepared by solution combustion method were investigated. Rietveld-refined X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the single-phase formation with space group Fd3m having spinel cubic structure. The porous nature of the samples was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Composition values of the theoretical stoichiometry and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) composition values are well matched for all samples. The dielectric parameters such as real part of dielectric constant, imaginary part of dielectric constant, and dielectric loss tangent decrease with the increase in frequency. The AC conductivity increases with increase in the Bi3+ concentration. The real part of complex impedance decreases with the increase in frequency. Cole-Cole plots reveal that one semicircle was obtained for each of the samples. The real and imaginary parts of electric modulus vary with frequency. The magnetic hysteresis curves of all samples reveal the soft magnetic material nature. We observed S esteems began uniquely from the higher superparamagnetic, we would have watched the monotonic decrease in S with increase in Bi3+ concentration. Furthermore, the magnetic parameters were estimated.
Part of the book: Bismuth