To elucidate the microbial dynamics inside rumen of animals of livestock importance and to provide a better ration to them in order to control various metabolic disorders, a better understanding of the rumen microbial ecology is pivotal. The fundamental knowledge of methanogenic population inside gut environment and ruminal fermentation is of considerable importance as it has a significant impact on the various metabolic activities of the animal. The major methanogens isolated and characterized from ruminants like cattle, sheep, steers, goats, reindeers are from the order Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, Methanococcales, Methanosarcinales and Methanomassiliicoccales. The chapter deals with present knowledge available regarding the methanogenic diversity present in the gastro-intestinal tract of ruminants all over the world primarily through constructing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and tries to uncover the new genera in ruminant’s microbiome and their adaptations in extreme environment. To get a better idea regarding the composition of methanogen community, further studies are required in relation to the effect of diet and animal species to the rumen methanogens.
Part of the book: Extremophilic Microbes and Metabolites