Fungi are considered as diverse group of eukaryotic organisms and have very important role in ecosystem. Although their expected number is more than 2.2–3.8 million, only 120,000 taxa have been identified so far. Basidiomycetes are very large group of fungi including mushrooms, toad stools, puff balls, earth stars, polypores, and rust and smut fungi. Previously, these fungi were identified only by morphological characters that have been considered as variable due to environmental factors. Literature shows that many fungi are misidentified due to phenotypic changes. Molecular methods including phylogenetics prove to be successful aids along with traditional methods for correct identification of these fungi and these have revolutionized fungal reclassification. Many fungal taxa have been shifted to other groups of fungi after their phylogenetic analysis. So, many DNA markers can be used to solve such problems.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Phylogenetics