Obesity is a major public health problem, which is growing around the world. It is a multifactorial disease and a risk factor for other noncommunicable diseases (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hepatic steatosis). Among the etiological factors, gut microbiota and diet, especially lipids, have been highlighted, which seem to have an important potential as a modulator of its composition, being the key factor in the link between microbiota and obesity. Gut microbiota interacts with the host metabolism in the development of this disease through dietary fatty acids or when produced by intestinal bacteria. Short-chain, saturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids have an impact with respect to gut microbiota and health, presenting central and systemic effects associated with the genesis of obesity. Finally, gut microbiota seems to play a significant role in controlling the endocannabinoid system, and imbalance in this system can be associated with obesity.
Part of the book: Biochemistry and Health Benefits of Fatty Acids