sPLA2 from Crotalus durissus terrificus venom, free of crotapotin (Cdt sPLA2), purified and isolated sPLA2, was able to significantly increase lipid peroxidation, which occurred simultaneously with increased arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. In addition, MDA and AA levels were elevated at 15 min after Cdt sPLA2 injection and after peak edema (negative control). Thus, oxidative stress and ROS play important roles in the inflammation induced by Cdt sPLA2. On the other hand, edema induced by sPLA2 involves the direct and indirect mobilization of arachidonic acid by the involvement of phosphokinase C (PKC) and phospholipase C (PLC), which indirectly stimulates cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2). We also observed that the specific antivenin against Cdt venom had no significant effect on the neutralization of induced edema compared to the natural products 5-caffeine-linoleic acid (5CQA) and dexamethasone (AACOCF3). Our results also indicate that there was improvement in the inhibition of edema of natural polyphenolic compounds compared to antivenin or inhibition of the enzymatic activity of sPLA2 due to the fact that 5CQA is a potent antioxidant compound. Thus, our results show a clear correlation between increased arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress.
Part of the book: Inflammation in the 21st Century