Probiotics were reported for several physical and psychological health benefits. Probiotics can positively alter the gut microbiome and nourish the commensal microbial load. Recent studies revealed that the cognitive functions (anxiety and depression) of human beings are meticulously associated with their genetic makeup, food habits, and gut microbiome. The gut microbiome may communicate with the brain through neural and humoral pathways, while involving several neurotransmitters and signaling molecules. The immune response, especially inflammatory system, plays a critical role in the microbiome and in mental health. Thus, many studies were conducted to explore the beneficial effect of probiotic, single and multistrain, formulations. Fruitful results were observed, but the underlying mechanism of probiotic-mediated improvement of mental health is not fully illustrated, even though some studies explained that the production of neurotransmitter-like metabolites by the probiotic strain could be the possible mediator of gut-brain axis. The present chapter summarizes the outcome of probiotic-based treatment for the improvement of stress and depression with respect to microbiome change, inflammation, and stress pathway.
Part of the book: Gut Microbiota