Part of the book: Explicative Cases of Controversial Issues in Neurosurgery
Basal ganglia refers to the deep gray matter masses on the deeply telencephalon and encompasses a group of nuclei and it influence the information in the extrapyramidal system. In human they are related with numerous significant functions controlled by the nervous system. Gross anatomically, it is comprised of different parts as the dorsal striatum that are consisted of the caudate nucleus and putamen and ventral striatum which includes the nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nucleus. Nucleus accumbens, is also associated with reward circuits and has two parts; the nucleus accumbens core and the nucleus accumbens shell. Neurological diseases are characterized through the obvious pathology of the basal ganglia, and there are important findings explaining striatal neurodegeneration on human brain. Some of these diseases are induced by bacterial and/or viral infections. Surgical interference can be one alternative for neuronal disease treatment like Parkinson’s Disease or Thiamine Responsive Basal Ganglia Disease or Wilson’s Disease, respectively in addition to the vascular or tumor surgery within this area. Extensive knowledge on the morphological basis of diseases of the basal ganglia along with motor, behavioral and cognitive symptoms can contribute significantly to the optimization of the diagnosis and later patient’s treatment.
Part of the book: Human Anatomy
Neuroblastoma is considered as the most common extracranial solid tumor occurring during childhood, but takes place rarely after the age of 10 years. The tumors are considered as embryonal tumors that result from the fetal or early postnatal life development and are formed from neural crest-derived cells, and their origination is from the early nerve cells which are called as neuroblasts of sympathetic nervous system. Being heterogeneous in their biological, genetic, and morphological characteristics, tumors which are distinct from other solid tumors due to their biological heterogeneity result in the clinical pattern changes from spontaneous regression to a highly aggressive metastatic disease. Neuroblastoma tumorigenesis is regulated by Myc oncogene, leading to aggressive tumor subset. Many epigenetic factors play crucial role in the disease induction and development, while regulatory effect and outcome result in epigenetic patterns distinguishing neuroectoderm, neural crest, and more mature neural states. Neuroblastoma patients’ clinical management is based on prognostic categories subtracted from studies correlating outcome and clinico-biological variables. Neuroblastoma anatomic boundaries include primarily autonomic nervous system besides other rare locations. Neuroblastoma molecular pathogenesis classifies the tumor according to the different clinical behaviors that are important for the improvement of the patients outcome and overall survival according to the different therapy modalities applied.
Part of the book: Neuroblastoma