Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic condition in which patients suffer troublesome symptoms and/or complications as the reflux of stomach contents occurs. GERD is a common disease worldwide with the range of estimated prevalence 18.1–27.8% in North America, 8.8–25.9% in Europe, 2.5–7.8% in East Asia, 8.7–33.1% in the Middle East, 11.6% in Australia and 23.0% in South America. It causes significant morbidity, considerable decrease of quality of life and high costs of exams and treatment derived from repeated visit doctor. The patients with GERD suffer from typical symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation, as well as other atypical symptoms including chest pain, cough, asthma, and hoarseness. With the usage of pump inhibitors (PPIs) in clinic, a dramatic improvement in symptom resolution and life quality, as well as in mucosal healing is expected. However, the treatment of GERD fails in a proportion of patients despite the high efficacy of PPIs. This situation is getting more and more common in clinical practices. In this chapter, we will discuss about this difficult situation, emphasizing diagnosis and treatment, combined with suggested management of these patients.
Part of the book: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease